A brief history of Syria and the reasons for the Syrian rebellion against Assad

Башар Ассад

For those who are interested in the reasons for the Syrian rebellion against the Assad regime – this materials.

What began the rebellion of the Syrian people against Assad? With the killing of children. In the city of Deraa, the province of the same name, twelve-year-old boys quite rightly spoke on the wall with respect to Bashar, whose father seized power in the country decades ago. “You are next, doctor!” They drew on the wall, referring to the overthrow of the tyrant.

Children were arrested and tortured to death, they were literally cut to pieces in a living manner.
When their fathers came and offered themselves in return, the regime bandits laughed mockingly and ordered them to go home and make themselves new sons. And if they fail, then they, the bandits, will come and help.

As a sign of solidarity with heartbroken fathers and against arbitrariness, people began to go to demonstrations, unarmed.

Assad declared this war.
Assad made it possible for his slaves to torture children in the dungeons.
Assad rooted the lawlessness of the Shiite minority in relation to the Sunnis in the country.
Assad was the first to open fire, killing those who disagree with his policies.

The tyrant is ready to kill as many people as necessary in order to maintain power. He does not shun anything, like the vile carrion-corpse.

His throne stands, washed by blood, and the dead children’s bodies of those killed by him are his support.

But the time will come – and you will be next, doctor!


As a rule, in order to understand the present, you need to turn around and look into the past. As you know, Bashar al-Assad comes from an Alawite family and is the grandson of Suleiman al-Assad. The very one who was an accomplice of the French occupation regime established in Syria in accordance with the Sykes-Picot agreement. Suleiman al-Assad was also one of the signatories of the so-called A “memorandum” of the Alawite elders addressed to the Prime Minister of France, the Jew Leon Blum. In their so-called “memorandum,” the elders tearfully asked the French government to maintain the mandate of a military presence in Syria, pushing it to continue the bloodshed. I give an excerpt.

To the Prime Minister of France, Leon Blum:

«On the occasion of the ongoing negotiations between France and Syria, we, the leaders of the Alawites in Syria, have the honor to draw your attention and the attention of your party to the following points:

The spirit of hatred and fanaticism, embedded in the hearts of Muslim Arabs against everything that is non-Muslim, was constantly raised by the Islamic religion. There is no hope that the situation will ever change. Therefore, the abolition of the mandate will mean that minorities in Syria will be at risk of death and destruction, since the abolition of the mandate will destroy the freedom of thought and belief.

We see today how Muslims living in Damascus forced the Jews living among them to sign a document obliging them not to send food to their suffering brethren living in Palestine. The Jewish situation in Palestine is clear and obvious evidence of the priority of the religious issue for Arab Muslims in relation to all who are not members of Islam.

Those good Jews who came to Arab Muslims with peace and civilization, spread throughout the land of Palestine, did no harm to anyone and took nothing by force. However, Muslims declared them a “holy war” and did not hesitate to kill their children and wives, despite the presence of the French and British in Palestine and Syria.

Thus, Jews and representatives of other religious minorities will face a black fate if the mandate is canceled and Syrian Muslims and Palestinians unite. This association is the highest goal of Arab Muslims.

We, the representatives of the Alawite people, subscribe to this memorandum. The Alawites shout and ask the French government and the French Socialist Party to ensure their rights and independence, to transfer this to the hands of the French leaders. The Alawites are true friends who have done great service to the French. Now we are threatened with death and destruction.

We value the noble feeling that pushes you to defend the Syrian people and arouses your desire to achieve independence, but Syria is now far from the honorable goal you are striving for, because Syria is still subject to the spirit of religious feudalism. And we hope that the French government and the French Socialist Party will not agree that the Syrians gain independence, which would mean the enslavement of the Alawite people, as well as the fact that minorities would be at risk of destruction.» The end of the quote.

This letter sheds light on from which womb both Bashar al-Assad and his father Hafez hatched into the white light. This is necessary to know in order to have a clear idea of ​​who ruled Syria over the past fifty years.


The Alawite night fell on Syria after not only one, but several military coups came to power, the son of the very Suleiman, Hafez. All these coups were steps along which the little-known commander of the Syrian Air Force fighter squadron, working with elbows and knees, climbed to the pantheon of Arab dictators, bred in ruins, cast down from the heights of the former greatness of the Islamic Caliphate.

As soon as he ascended the throne, Assad declared himself the secretary general of the ruling Ba’ath party and the sole ruler of Syria. It must be said that after each next coup, the “sun-like” easily and unconsciously dumped those naive and unfortunate people with whom the previous coup was preparing, because there was no alternative to his dictatorship in Syria at the time of his reign. The despotism of the “Damascus lion” was an exact copy of the other oriental despots of that time and was infected by exactly the same social miasms and vices. The stratification of society into “Jupiters” and “bulls”, a corrupt economy, the atrocities of the secret police (muhabarata) created by him, who kidnapped and killed people for disagreeing with the authorities’s policy, even manifested in conversations, not to mention sympathy or involvement in religious opposition.

26 Mar 2000, Geneva, Switzerland – President Bill Clinton (R) meeting his Syrian counterpart Hafez al-Assad at the Hotel Intercontinental in Geneva.

Having asserted personal, uncontested and totalitarian domination, having placed representatives of the Alawite clans at key posts in the army and power structures, Assad continued his father’s business with tripled energy, demonstrating the habits of the banal cannibal, which laid a heavy hereditary burden on the shoulders of his offspring. Any crossing of the borders of religious zeal established by the Alawite regime, as well as any disagreement with Alawite officials who had lost their measure and shame, was suppressed either by murder, or by persecution, or by a prison term. Only for the carelessly expressed phrase did people go to prison young and go out to gray-haired old people. The clergy, as befits the clergy, was occupied only with the glorification of the regime and the guidance of “calm” in the mood of believers. But I must say that the Syrian people reciprocated the “love” of their ruler, firing off the Ba’athites and Alawites, as the main agents of the regime’s policy, his accomplices and informers.

The culmination of his atrocities came in February 1982, when the units of the national guard entrusted to him, consisting entirely of Alawites, committed the massacres of the Sunni population in the city of Hama, which rebelled against his dictatorship. For three weeks, the city was literally wiped off the face of the earth. (For comparison, I note that the Russian army “put things in order” in Grozny in three months, but trams still walk quietly along the streets of the besieged junta of Donetsk, and Zasyadko mine is operating peacefully two kilometers from the airport). According to various estimates, about 40 thousand people were killed in Hama alone. Mass executions of Sunnis, from adolescence to old people, were also carried out in Homs, Aleppo and other cities of Syria.

Rifaat (uncle of Bashar al-Assad) and the official emblem of the “Defense Brigade” of the Alawites.

By squeezing the grip of repression, Assad carried out the anti-Islamic project of Arab National Socialism, the idea of ​​which was actively supported by the Soviet atheist regime of the USSR, which hoped to use Arab nationalists against “Israel” in the framework of the Cold War with Western countries. However, Arab dictators, warlike and irreconcilable in the war by their own peoples, quickly became thinner and lost ground in the war against the Jews. The result of their policy was that Israel gained even more territories and strengthened its position in the region. They continued to invoke Muslims under the colorful rags distributed to them by their European masters, as they continue to this day.


Realizing what the Alawite’s withdrawal from the political arena could lead to, the regime began to prepare a replacement for Hafez. After his son Basil, who was seen as a successor, died in a car accident in 1994, the ruling Alawite clan made Bashar an offer he could not refuse. He was immediately recalled from London, where he studied in residency, and by order of his father entered the military academy in Homs. After graduation, he led the Republican Guard, and in 1999 he was awarded the rank of colonel. June 10, 2000 Hafez al-Assad died. On June 11, Bashar al-Assad was promoted to lieutenant general and appointed supreme commander. The pocket Syrian parliament changed the constitution, reducing the minimum age of a presidential candidate from 40 to 34 years, especially in order to confirm Bashar al-Assad as president of Syria. After which the matter fell behind a minor trifle. It was necessary to fill ballot boxes with ballots of “voters”. With this, as we know, dictators never have problems. They did not arise this time. The “election” took place a month after the death of Hafez al-Assad. 97% of Syrians voted for Bashar al-Assad. After which he was finally approved as president of Syria.

At first, expanding the limits of what was possible for business, opening the country’s borders, easing the pressure of special services and even appearing at a collective prayer in a mosque, Bashar al-Assad was able to create the illusion that the times of tyranny, total surveillance and extrajudicial executions were in the past. A few months after his inauguration, 99 representatives of the Syrian intelligentsia appealed to him to ensure civil liberties, the creation of trade unions and a multi-party system, which Assad perceived as a hidden threat to the regime. In the spring of 2001, numerous arrests were made. Most of the signatories of this statement were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. A similar reaction from the regime to the demands of freedoms and a multi-party system was explained by the fact that all the key areas of business belonged to the Asad family. Oil, automobiles, pharmacology, real estate, and cellular communications were non-alternatively included in the financial interests of the Alavite clan, and therefore they had something to lose.

Already in the first year of Bashar al-Assad’s reign, it became clear that, with the exception of subtle details, his regime was an exact copy of his father’s regime. Caste division of society, violation of civil liberties, total control of special services, lawlessness “gangsters” controlled by the regime, torture and murder of suspects and prisoners … I must say that most Syrians had no illusions about Bashar, because they believed that the Alawite’s power was no less humiliating than the French’s. Moreover, the Alawites before the assumption of Assad Sr. had a reputation for dirty, uneducated plebeians, who historically did not belong to the Ummah and never stood at the forefront of social processes, and even more so changes. Wishing to please the Syrian regime, only unfaithful Shiites recognized them as their own, in 1973 they issued a fatwa about the Alawites belonging to Islam, which absolutely did not change the attitude of Muslims towards them, who perceived the Alawite camp on their neck as a temporary and humiliating misunderstanding. In this form and condition, the regime met the “Arab spring.”

Rise of the Muslim Sham

Dawn wandered when, after the resignations of the presidents of Egypt and Tunisia, Mubarak and Ben Ali, a group of teenagers in the city of Daraa painted graffiti on the wall: “It’s your turn, doctor!” (Assad previously studied at the medical university). The boys were caught and taken to the police, which began to act according to the pattern. They began to torture children. The torture and assassination process was led by Bashar al-Assad’s cousin Atef Najib, who led the political police in Daraa. Relatives of adolescents who came with requests for pardon made it clear that they would not be given alive. “Go to your women and make other children, and if you fail, then we will help you,” was the answer. After almost a month, the body of one of the children of Hamza al-Khatib was nevertheless returned. Parents were ordered to bury the boy immediately. When the body was open, numerous hematomas and traces of cauterization by cigarettes were found on it. The boy had a broken skull, a broken jaw, and a genital organ cut off. The news of this spread very quickly.

The inscription on the wall “Your turn, doctor!”, Written by a group of teenagers who were subsequently tortured to death by the Shiites of Assad, Daraa, April 2011.

In principle, no innovative methods were used in working with detained adolescents. Disagreement with the regime has always been punished in approximately the same way, regardless of gender or age. The police did their work as taught, and as required from it. Therefore, people began to go out to protest demonstrations not with the requirement to punish the police, but with the demand for the resignation of the Alawite regime. They say that even the imam of the local mosque, who had previously performed his duties properly, after what he saw became an “agent of the State Department” and attacked Assad and his clique with an angry speech.

Having received news of what was happening, Bashar began to act as he considered it right and only possible. He sent out military units to deal with the demonstrators, who began to torture and shoot people, even without delay. After cases of refusal to shoot at people were recorded by conscript soldiers, the regime conducted a series of demonstrative executions of refuseniks. Then the demonstrators began to be shot from tanks and helicopters. Then the Jihad began.



Did the Syrian people have the right to revolt? Did the people who survived thousands of losses and wiped out thousands of spits from their faces, buried thousands of tortured, raped, torn to pieces, and executed people? Should he have wiped himself off and, beaming with happiness and following the order, go make new children, forgetting about those screaming in horror and pain, on whose bodies the executioners extinguished cigarettes?

Too smart uncles from the TV, all sorts of analysts and experts on countering terrorism, shouting at each other, inspire me that he didn’t. For several years in a row, they have been proving to me that the people have the right to revolt only when instead of vodka they pour a vodka and “do not allow them to speak Russian.” Another thing is when 13-year-olds break their jaws and cut their genitals. Then, according to smart uncles, the people should show political awareness, thank and go where they ordered. Otherwise, he will be recorded in Islamic terrorists for the State Department dollars, who opposed the “legitimately elected president.” Then the throats will be cut off for his children and women, and his old men will be burned and beaten to death. Then the Russian Luftwaffe will fly in and “point” to bomb them all with smart bombs. As smart as Russian roads.


* The attached materials to the article are not intended for people with a weak mentality and under 18 years of age.

I read the warning * Open



Сергей Ледов
Sergey Ledov - observer of the military conflict in Syria. Historian, teacher. He has been living in Syria for 10 years. The reason for embracing Islam was the study of the reasons for the beginning of the revolution. In social networks, he runs the blog "Inspire", which cuts the truth as it is, dissecting the pathetic attempts of the lying rulers and their henchmen to seem honest, decent and fair.